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Schizophrenia : Symptoms and Causes of Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia,Schizophrenia : Types,Symptoms,Causes and Treatment
Schizophrenia

What is Schizophrenia ?

Schizophrenia is a serious mental disturbance during which people describe reality abnormally. Schizophrenia may end in some sequence of hallucinations, delusions, and intensely disordered thinking and behavior that impair daily functioning, and might be disabling.

People with schizophrenia require lifelong treatment. Early treatment may help get symptoms in check before serious complications develop and should help improve the long-term outlook.

People with schizophrenia have many problems doing well in society, at school, and in relationships. They might feel frightened and withdrawn, and can appear to possess lost touch with reality. This lifelong disease can’t be cured but are often controlled with proper treatment. 

Contrary to popular belief, schizophrenia isn't a split or multiple personality. Schizophrenia involves a psychosis, a sort of mental illness during which a private can’t tell what’s real from what’s imagined. The earth could seem kind of jumble of confusing thoughts, images, and sounds. Their behavior could even be very strange and even shocking. A sudden change in personality and behavior, which happens when folks that have it lose touch with reality, is known as a psychotic episode.


Types of Schizophrenia 


There are five types of schizophrenia.They are categorized by the types of symptoms the person exhibits when they are assessed:

1.Paranoid schizophrenia
2.Disorganized schizophrenia
3.Catatonic schizophrenia
4.Undifferentiated schizophrenia
5.Residual schizophrenia


Paranoid Schizophrenia


Schizophrenia,Schizophrenia : Types,Symptoms,Causes and Treatment
Paranoid Schizophrenia

Those schizophrenia which is characterized by mostly positive symptoms which include delusions and hallucinations. These debilitating symptoms blur the road between what's real and what isn’t, making it difficult for the person to steer a typical life. People with paranoid type schizophrenia may exihibit anger, anxiety, and hostility. The person usually has normal intellectual functioning and way of expression.

Disorganized Schizophrenia


Schizophrenia,Schizophrenia : Types,Symptoms,Causes and Treatment
Disorganized Schizophrenia

A person with disorganized-type schizophrenia will exhibit behaviors that are disorganized or speech which will be bizarre or difficult to know.They may display inappropriate emotions or reactions that don't relate to things at-hand. Daily activities like hygiene, eating, and dealing could also be disrupted or neglected by their disorganized thought.



Catatonic Schizophrenia


Schizophrenia,Schizophrenia : Types,Symptoms,Causes and Treatment
Catatonic Schizophrenia

Disturbances of movement mark catatonic-type schizophrenia. People with this sort of schizophrenia may vary between extremes: they'll remain immobile or may move everywhere the place. They may say nothing for hours, or they'll repeat everything you say or do.These behaviors put these people with catatonic-type schizophrenia at high risk because they're often unable to require care of themselves or complete daily activity.


Undifferentiated Schizophrenia


Schizophrenia,Schizophrenia : Types,Symptoms,Causes and Treatment
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

Undifferentiated-type schizophrenia could also be a classification used when a private exhibits behaviors which fit into two or more of the other kinds of schizophrenia,including symptoms like delusions, hallucinations,disorganized speech or behavior, catatonic behavior.


Residual Schizophrenia


Schizophrenia,Schizophrenia : Types,Symptoms,Causes and Treatment
Residual Schizophrenia

When an individual features a past history of a minimum of one episode of schizophrenia, but the currently has no symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech or behavior) they're considered to possess residual-type schizophrenia. The person could also be in complete remission, or may at some point resume symptoms.


Schizophrenia Symptoms


Schizophrenia,Schizophrenia : Types,Symptoms,Causes and Treatment
Schizophrenia Symptoms


Many people with schizophrenia do not appear ill. However, many behavioral changes will cause the person to look 'off' because the disease progresses. Symptoms include:


  • Social withdrawal
  • Anxiety
  • Delusions
  • Hallucinations
  • Paranoid feelings or feelings of persecution
  • Loss of appetite or neglecting to eat
  • Loss of hygiene


Symptoms may also be grouped into categories, discussed given below.



Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia


In this case, the word positive doesn’t mean good. It refers to added thoughts or actions that aren’t based in reality. They’re sometimes called psychotic symptoms and can include:



Delusions: These are false, mixed, and sometimes strange beliefs that aren’t based in reality and that the person refuses to give up, even when shown the facts. For example, a person with delusions may believe that people can hear their thoughts, that they are God or the devil, or that people are putting thoughts into their head or plotting against them.

Hallucinations: These involve sensations that aren't real. Hearing voices is that the commonest hallucination in people with schizophrenia. The voices may comment on the person's behavior, insult them, or give commands. Less common types include seeing things that aren't there, smelling strange odors, having a funny taste in your mouth, and feeling sensations on your skin even though nothing is touching your body.


Catatonia: In this condition, the person may stop speaking, and their body may be fixed in a single position for a very long time.



Disorganized Symptoms of Schizophrenia



Talking in sentences that don’t make sense orusing nonsense words, making it difficult for the person to communicate or hold a conversation

  • Shifting quickly from one thought to subsequent  without obvious or logical connections between them
  • Moving slowly
  • Being unable to make decisions
  • Writing excessively but without meaning
  • Forgetting or losing things
  • Repeating movements or gestures, like pacing or walking in circles
  • Havingproblems in making sense of everyday sights, sounds,and feelings


Cognitive Symptoms of Schizophrenia

The person will have trouble:

  • Understanding information and using it to make decisions (a doctor might call this poor executive functioning)
  • Focusing or paying attention
  • Using their information immediately after learning it

Recognizing that they have any of these problems



Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia

The word "negative" here doesn’t mean "bad." It notes the absence of normal behaviors in people with schizophrenia. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia include:


  • Lack of emotion or a limited range of emotions
  • Withdrawal from family, friends, and social activities
  • Less energy
  • Speaking less
  • Lack of motivation
  • Loss of pleasure or interest in life
  • Poor hygiene and grooming habits


Affective (or Mood) Symptoms

Affective symptoms refer to those which affect mood. Patients with schizophrenia often have overlapping depression and may have suicidal thoughts or behaviors.


What Are the Early Symptoms of Schizophrenia?

The condition usually shows its first signs in men in their late teens or early 20s. It mostly affects women in their early 20s and 30s. The period when symptoms first start and before full psychosis is called the prodromal period. It can last days, weeks, or even years. It can be hard to spot because there’s usually no specific trigger. You might only notice subtle behavioral changes, especially in teens. This includes:
A change in grades
Social withdrawal
Trouble concentrating
Temper flares
Difficulty sleeping


Schizophrenia Causes


Schizophrenia,Schizophrenia : Types,Symptoms,Causes and Treatment,Schizophrenia Causes
Schizophrenia Causes


 Causes of Schizophrenia

The exact cause of schizophrenia isn’t known. But like cancer and diabetes, schizophrenia may be a real illness with a biological basis. Researchers have uncovered a number of things that appear to make someone more likely to get schizophrenia, including:

Genetics (heredity): Schizophrenia can run in families, which means a greater likelihood to have schizophrenia may be passed on from parents to their children.

Brain chemistry and circuits: People with schizophrenia may not be able to regulate brain chemicals called neurotransmitters that control certain pathways, or "circuits," of nerve cells that affect thinking and behavior.

Brain abnormality: Research has found abnormal brain structure in people with schizophrenia. But this doesn’t apply to all people with schizophrenia. It can affect people without the disease.

Environment: Things like viral infections, or highly stressful situations may trigger schizophrenia in people whose genes make them more likely to urge the disorder. Schizophrenia more often surfaces when the body has hormonal and physical changes, like people who happen during the teenager and young adult years.


Who Gets Schizophrenia?

Anyone can get schizophrenia. It affects people all over the world, from all races and cultures. While it can happen at any age, schizophrenia typically first appears in the teenage years or early 20s. The disorder affects men and ladies equally, although symptoms generally appear earlier in men. The earlier the symptoms start, the more severe the illness tends to be. Children over the age of 5 can have schizophrenia, but it’s rare before adolescence.



How Is Schizophrenia Diagnosed?


 Schizophrenia, Schizophrenia : Types,Symptoms,Causes and Treatment
Schizophrenia Diagnosed


If symptoms of schizophrenia are present, the doctor will perform an entire medical record and sometimes a physical exam. While there are not any laboratory tests to specifically diagnose schizophrenia, the doctor may use various tests, and possibly blood tests or brain imaging studies, to rule out another physical illness or intoxication (substance-induced psychosis) because the explanation for the symptoms.

If the doctor finds no other physical reason for the schizophrenia symptoms, they will refer the person to a psychiatrist or psychologist.

A person is diagnosed with schizophrenia if they have at least two of these symptoms for at least 6 months:

  1. Delusions
  2. Hallucinations
  3. Disorganized speech
  4. Disorganized or catatonic behavior
  5. Negative symptoms
One of the symptoms has to be
  1. Delusions
  2. Hallucinations
  3. Disorganized speech
During the 6 months, the person must have a month of active symptoms. (It can be less with successful treatment.) Symptoms should negatively affect them socially or at work, and can’t be caused by any other condition.



Schizophrenia Treatment - Medications


Schizophrenia,Schizophrenia : Types,Symptoms,Causes and Treatment
Schizophrenia Treatment


The goal of schizophrenia treatment is to ease the symptoms and to cut the chances of a relapse, or return of symptoms. Treatment for schizophrenia may include:

Medications: The primary medications used to treat schizophrenia are called antipsychotics. These drugs don’t cure schizophrenia but help relieve the foremost troubling symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, and thinking problems.

Older (commonly referred to as "first-generation") antipsychotic medications used include:


Note: Clozapine is the only FDA-approved medication for treating schizophrenia that is resistant to other treatments. It’s also used to lessen suicidal behaviors in those with schizophrenia who are at risk.

Coordinated specialty care (CSC) 

This is often a team approach toward treating schizophrenia when the primary symptoms appear. It combines medicine and therapy with social services, employment, and educational interventions. The family is involved as much as possible. Early treatment is key to helping patients lead a normal life.

Psychosocial therapy 

While medication may help relieve symptoms of schizophrenia, various psychosocial treatments can help with the behavioral, psychological, social, and occupational problems that go with the illness. Through therapy, patients also can learn to manage their symptoms, identify early warning signs of relapse, and come up with a relapse prevention plan. Psychosocial therapies include:


Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation which focuses on social skills and job training to assist people with schizophrenia function within the community and live as independently as possible


Cognitive remediation 

Cognitive remediation which involves learning techniques to make up for problems with information processing. It often uses drills, coaching, and computer-based exercises to strengthen mental skills that involve attention, memory, planning, and organization.


Individual psychotherapy

Individual psychotherapy which can help the person better understand his illness, and learn coping and problem-solving skills


Family therapy

Family therapywhich may help families affect a beloved who has schizophrenia, enabling them to raised help their beloved 


Group therapy

Group therapy support groups, which may provide continuing mutual support


Hospitalization 

Many people with schizophrenia may be treated as outpatients. But hospitalization may be the best option for people:

With severe symptoms
Who might harm themselves or others
Who can’t take care of themselves at home

hospitalization is must important for them


Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

In this procedure, electrodes are attached to the person's scalp. While they’re asleep under general anaesthesia , doctors send alittle electric shock to the brain. A course of ECT therapy usually involves 3-4 treatments per week for several weeks. Each shock treatment causes a controlled seizure. A series of treatments over time leads to improvement in mood and thinking. Scientists don’t fully understand exactly how ECT and the controlled seizures it causes help, but some researchers think ECT-induced seizures may affect the release of neurotransmitters in the brain. ECT is a smaller amount well-proven to assist with schizophrenia than depression or manic depression , so it isn’t used fairly often when mood symptoms are absent. It can help when medications not work, or if severe depression or catatonia makes treating the illness difficult.


Research

Researchers are watching a procedure called deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat schizophrenia. Doctors surgically implant electrodes that stimulate certain brain areas believed to regulate thinking and perception. DBS is an established treatment for severe Parkinson's disease and essential tremor, but it’s still experimental for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.


Are People With Schizophrenia Dangerous?

Popular books and films often depict people with schizophrenia and other mental illnesses as dangerous and violent. This usually isn’t true. Most people with schizophrenia are not violent. More typically, they like to withdraw and be left alone. When people with mental illness do take part in dangerous or violent behaviors, it’s generally a result of their psychosis and the fear that they’re being threatened in some way by their surroundings. Drug or alcohol use can make it worse.

On the opposite hand, people with schizophrenia are often a danger to themselves. Suicide is the top cause of premature death among people with schizophrenia.



What Is the Outlook for People With Schizophrenia?

With proper treatment, most of the people with schizophrenia can lead productive and fulfilling lives. Depending on how severe the condition is and how well they get and stick with treatment, they should be able to live with their families or in community settings rather than in long-term psychiatric hospitals.

Ongoing research on the brain and how brain disorders happen will likely lead to more effective medicines with fewer side effects.



What can trigger schizophrenia?


The exact causes of schizophrenia are unknown. Research suggests a mixture of physical, genetic, psychological and environmental factors can make an individual more likely to develop the condition. Some people could also be susceptible to schizophrenia, and a stressful or emotional life event might trigger a psychotic episode.


Can Schizophrenia Be Prevented?

There’s no known way to prevent schizophrenia. But early diagnosis and treatment can help avoid or ease frequent relapses and hospitalizations, and help cut the disruption to the person's life, family, and relationships.


                  

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