ASTM D4428 PDF

These test methods are limited to the determination of the velocity of two types of horizontally travelling seismic waves in soil materials. GEOPHYSICAL SYSTEMS. NDE ™» One Platform – Multiple NDE Tests geo- Crosshole/Downhole Seismic» ASTM D/DM/D(DS). Crosshole seismic test procedures are outlined in ASTM test designation D M (). The ASTM procedures provide specific.

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This becomes uniquely critical when only two drill holes are used i. Also, digital signal processing may be directly performed for coherence, frequency-dependent attenuation, and spectral analysis.

Seismic data for crosshole testing need considerably more waveform interpretation because refraction events from high-velocity layers either above or below a low-velocity layer must be identified and the first-arrival velocity corrected.

Direct and fairly straightforward computation of the S-wave velocity profile, which is correlated with the liquefaction potential of both the materials and depth intervals of engineering concern for the safety of the structure. Theoretically, there is no difference in the body wave velocity for SV- and SH-waves, which justifies use of the uncomplicated vertical source for generation of SV-waves, and vertically oriented geophones for signal detection.

Historical Version s – view previous versions of standard. With the deviation logs, corrected crosshole distances between each borehole may be computed and used in the velocity analysis.

Also, depending upon the velocity contrast across layer boundaries, direct arrivals through low-velocity layers are generally larger amplitude and thereby recognizable. Because only body waves are generated in the source borehole during crosshole tests, surface waves ground roll are not generated and do not interfere with the recorded body-wave seismic signals.

Comparing both sets of direct wave velocities, that is, source to receiver No. The primary purpose of obtaining crosshole data is to obtain the most detailed in situ seismic wave velocity profile for site-specific investigations and awtm Characterization.

Acquiring crosshole seismic data resolves hidden layer velocity anomalies d44228 cannot be detected with conventional surface methods, allows both final interpretation of other surface geophysical data seismic or electricaland permits both empirical and theoretical correlation with other geotechnical material parameters.

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Apparent V 1 refracted velocity. Figure 1 illustrates a general field setup for the crosshole seismic test method. Typically, geophysical borehole logging will be conducted in each drill hole for the purpose of defining lithologic and stratigraphic continuity of the deposits.

As the vadose zone and water surface are encountered, P-wave velocities become dependent upon the percent aatm, and the Poisson’s ratio is no longer a valid representation of the formation characteristics. It is beyond the scope of these test methods to consider significant digits used in analysis asttm for engineering design.

Further, several types of commercially available receivers and recording systems can also be used to conduct an acceptable crosshole survey. Assuming that the boreholes are vertical and plumb leads to computational inaccuracies and ultimately to data that cannot be quality assured.

This sample problem, or example data set, illustrates three distinct advantages that crosshole testing has over conventional atm geophysical testing for these types of investigations: Experience has proven that for optimal measurement of the P-wave signal, a hydrophone has the greatest pressure-pulse sensitivity for compressional-wave energy. In this example, refractions occur in a situation similar to that depicted in figure 3; that is, refractions asgm from high-velocity materials either above or below the low-velocity layer.

Users of these test methods are cautioned that compliance with Practice D does not in itself assure reliable results. For engineering applications, there is not much advantage in determining via modeling the ray coverage or residual velocity resolution because crosshole testing at the engineering scale utilizes a simple horizontal, straight-ray path geometry to determine average velocity. Also, because each drill hole was cased for the crosshole tests, additional geophysical surveys should be conducted.

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Standard – Standard Test Methods for Crosshole Seismic Testing ASTM D/DM –

Typically, either forward or inverse modeling for cross-borehole seismic investigations consists of computing synthetic travel times to test the ray astmm coverage and resolution of either unknown or e4428 velocity anomalies, respectively.

Increasing velocity with depth implies the seismic ray path is nearly circular between source and receiver, thereby sensing deeper higher velocity material as the source-receiver separation increases.

V 2 across the seismic interface determine if the refracted wave will arrive before the direct wave. Furthermore, the program was fashioned around the ASTM conventions and test procedures outlined for crosshole seismic testing. Data are then used to determine the liquefaction potential of the foundation alluvial deposits. A preferred test method intended satm use on critical projects where the highest quality data must be obtained is included.

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Crosshole velocity data are valuable for assessing man-made materials, soil deposits, or rock formations.

Standard Test Methods for Crosshole Seismic Testing

Crosshole SV-waves showing direct D astj refracted R arrivals. During phase two field exploration, the information gathered is more critical to the analytical site-specific Characterization.

Other items addressed include borehole spacing, drilling, casing, grouting, deviation surveys, and actual test conduct. Within the text, the inch-pound units are shown in brackets.

Hence, below the water surface, the P-wave is commonly termed the fluid wave, because its propagation velocity is governed by the pore fluid snot the formation density. Unlike surface seismic techniques, crosshole testing requires a more careful interpretation of the waveforms acquired at each depth.

This permits timing direct arrivals directly off the waveform. 4d428

There are a number of digital signal processing techniques useful for determining material properties other than P- or S-wave velocity, as well as confirming the computed crosshole velocity profile, such as: When layers of alternating density or stiffness are either known to exist or are encountered during phase one field investigations, crosshole seismic tests are recommended to define the in situ velocities within each layer.

Recording instruments used in crosshole testing vary considerably, but there are no standard requirements other than exact synchronization of the source pulse and instrument trigger for each recording. Due to the different particle motions along the seismic ray path, it is crucial to use optimal source-receiver systems in order to best record crosshole P- or S-waves Hoar, Bureau of Reclamation, Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with these test methods.

Poor coupling between the casing and the formation yields delayed arrival times and attenuated signal amplitudes, particularly for higher frequency P-waves.