In contrast, the Dissocubes® technology employs piston-gap homogenizers. The technology was developed by Müller and colleagues (, ) and later. DissoCubes are part of Nanosuspension preparation. In which piston–gap high- pressure homogenization occurs. The main advantages of this technology. Employing piston-gap homogenizers, Müller and coworkers developed the Dissocubes technology (now belonging to Skyepharma plc) and the.

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In the case of IV-injected nanocrystals, the size should be as small as possible in case the pharmacokinetics of a solution are mimicked.

DissoCubes: A Novel Formulation to Enhance Solubility

Excipients increase drug dissolution rate by increasing active drug surface area in contact with the dissolution medium [ 7 ]. Eur J Pharm Biopharm.

The rate of solution of solid substances in their own solutions. The liquid flows come in contact, which results in the precipitation of the drug. Mixture of dissocubed and polymers has been found to be beneficial for long-term stabilisation of nanosuspensions [ 78, ].

For many applications there is the need to combine drug nanocrystals with traditional controlled release technology eg, coated pellets to avoid fast dissolution, excessively high plasma technolkgy and premature t maxand to reach prolonged blood levels. In another study, an itraconazol nanosuspension for I. Advantages of an amorphous particle state It is disssocubes known that amorphous drugs possess a higher saturation solubility compared to crystalline drug material.

Homogenization in Nonaqueous Media Nanopure Nanopure is suspension homogenized in water-free medium.

Rapid addition of solution to such solvent generally water leads to rapid supersaturation of drug in the solution, and formation of ultrafine amorphous or crystalline drug.

The enhanced absorption of fenofibrate in fed patients can be explained with the availability of lipids and other surfactants eg, dissocubed in the food, thus solubilizing the fenofibrate. The value of particle surface charge indicates the stability of nanosuspensions at the macroscopic level.

Nanosuspension: An approach to enhance solubility of drugs

The bottom up technologies ie, starting from a dissolved molecule, precipitation are currently — to our knowledge — not used in the production of commercial products. Deena Dalith, and C. Currently studies are being undertaken to evaluate the change in pharmacokinetics if any between the pellets and the capsules. The challenges of this technique are to minimize the crystal growth into the nanometer range controlled crystallization and to control the solid state of the crystals, that is, to produce them in crystalline or amorphous form [ 5 ].


Schematic of the electric double layer formed around a charged particle. The melting points and the normalized melting enthalpies technplogy unmodified and spray-dried modified ibuprofen were compared and showed almost no difference. Unfortunately, a relatively high number of cycles 50 to passes are necessary for a sufficient particle dissoucbes reduction. The formulation for cosmetic and nutraceutical applications, such as those discussed by Petersen in the Technollogy technology patent, has also been successful [ 6 ].

The particle size of nanosuspension mainly depends on parameters like drug concentration, concentration and type of stabilizers used, cooling temperature, and homogenization process. In the case of the HPH, the number of homogenization cycles was reduced from 20 to only five cycles to achieve a sufficiently small particle size.

Nanosuspension Technologies for Delivery of Poorly Soluble Drugs

The process factors that were investigated included solvent: Drugs which normally require food to become soluble will be bioequivalent as nanocrystals in fed and fasted states.

The nanonized drug can be formulated in less volume, so the single dose the patient has to take daily dose mg of megestrol in 5 ml of fluid is reduced by the factor four compared to the oral solution available. The nanocrystal technology makes the fenofibrate independent of meals. Lipophilic compounds have poor aqueous solubility and imperfect dissolution profile which causes their low bioavailability. Identifying new oral technologies to meet your drug delivery needs for the delivery of peptides and proteins and poorly soluble molecules.

Investigation of the effects of grinding and co-grinding on physicochemical properties of glisentide. The technology uses dispersion media with a low vapor pressure and optionally homogenization at low temperatures.

Rationale for development and what we can expect for the future. The technoloy stabilized by the colloid localizes in the oily phase. Estimating the relative stability of polymorphs and hydrates from heats of solution and solubility data.


This compound was dissolved in a 1: Additionally, the precipitation process produced, in general, amorphous drug particles [ 34 ]. This method involves nuclei formation and crystal growth which are mainly dependent on temperature.

Nil Conflict of Interest: Information about these drugs and products is sparingly available due to high risks for knowledge leaks and fear of competitors in the pharmaceutical industry, but the following examples give an indication of potential future products: However, both technologies achieved homogeneous dispersed nanosuspensions with a low particle size.

Plasma levels in fed and fasting condition are bioequivalent data on file, Abbott Labs. Longer circulation time is required to allow nanoparticles sufficient time to leak out of vasculature in infective and inflammatory areas including cancer tissues []. All-trans retinoic acid is a poorly soluble, heat-sensitive, anticancer drug. Homogenization pressure, number of homogenization cycles, hardness of drugs, and temperature when thermosensitive drugs are processed are factors that influence the physical characteristics such as particle size of the resulting nanosuspensions.

Thus, it is possible to immediately stabilize the drug nanocrystals to ensure small particle sizes. Its drawback is the employment of high temperatures during SD, which could make this technology unsuitable to process thermolabile compounds. This method involves forcing a suspension, which contains drug and stabilisers, through a valve with a small orifice under pressure. In case the limit is exceeded and nanocrystals get in contact with each other within the excipient mixture of the tablet, the nanocrystals might fuse to larger crystals under the compression pressure during tablet production.

Study by Gupta et al. The homogenization length could also be reduced from 20 cycles to only one cycle, which was sufficient to produce a nanosuspension with a smaller particle size than after 20 cycles with the standard method [ 44 ].

This phenomenon results in the formation of gas bubbles that implode after leaving the gap cavitation. Another advantage is the reduced viscosity of the Megace ES formulation, which also leads to increased patient compliance.